Log In. [214], A significant number of amphetamine syntheses feature a reduction of a nitro, imine, oxime, or other nitrogen-containing functional groups. [27], The adverse side effects of amphetamine are many and varied, and the amount of amphetamine used is the primary factor in determining the likelihood and severity of adverse effects. The drug is made with a combination of amphetamine salts that affect the parts of the brain and central nervous system that control hyperactivity and impulses. [132][133] Today … Create New Account. [5] Following oral administration, amphetamine appears in urine within 3 hours. Used under prescription, stimulants can be safe and effective. For information about the brand's socio-cultural impact, see, "thyramine" redirects here. See more of Amphetameme on Facebook. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers:[note 3] levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Recent Post by Page. [1][27][87] Other potential physical side effects include appetite loss, blurred vision, dry mouth, excessive grinding of the teeth, nosebleed, profuse sweating, rhinitis medicamentosa (drug-induced nasal congestion), reduced seizure threshold, tics (a type of movement disorder), and weight loss. [126], A 2018 systematic review and network meta-analysis of 50 trials involving 12 different psychosocial interventions for amphetamine, methamphetamine, or cocaine addiction found that combination therapy with both contingency management and community reinforcement approach had the highest efficacy (i.e., abstinence rate) and acceptability (i.e., lowest dropout rate). What are amphetamines? [109][123][124] These sexual addictions are associated with a dopamine dysregulation syndrome which occurs in some patients taking dopaminergic drugs. It can also speed up reaction times, increase muscle strength, and reduce fatigue. Due to concerns over their side effects, however, amphetamines are increasingly being replaced by modafinil, a medication that promotes wakefulness. [225][226] Amphetamine is generally only detectable by a standard drug test for approximately 24 hours, although a high dose may be detectable for 2–4 days. or. [1][34][87] Dextroamphetamine, marketed under the brand names Dexedrine and Zenzedi, is the only enantiopure amphetamine product currently available. In der Drogenszene werden Amphetamine oft als "Speed" angeboten. Amphetamines are psychostimulant drugs that abnormally speed up the functions of the brain and body. [220] Hence, the latter method may be used on samples that test positive using other methods to help distinguish between the various sources of the drug. Its use results in an increase in certain types of brain activity, resulting in a feeling of higher energy, focus, confidence, and in a dose-dependent manner, can elicit a rewarding euphoria. [134] The review indicated that the severity of withdrawal symptoms is positively correlated with the age of the individual and the extent of their dependence. [207], Amphetamine is frequently measured in urine or blood as part of a drug test for sports, employment, poisoning diagnostics, and forensics. For everything you want to know, talk to FRANK. It is used to treat some medical conditions, but it is also highly addictive, with a history of abuse. [11], The prodrug lisdexamfetamine is not as sensitive to pH as amphetamine when being absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract;[181] following absorption into the blood stream, it is converted by red blood cell-associated enzymes to dextroamphetamine via hydrolysis. In literature. It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use. [237] Among European Union (EU) member states in 2018,[update] 11.9 million adults of ages 15–64 have used amphetamine or methamphetamine at least once in their lives and 1.7 million have used either in the last year. [134] Amphetamine withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, drug craving, depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, increased movement or decreased movement, lack of motivation, sleeplessness or sleepiness, and lucid dreams. Yesterday at 9:39 PM . [237], As a result of the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, amphetamine became a schedule II controlled substance, as defined in the treaty, in all 183 state parties. [36][57] Amphetamine affects serotonin via VMAT2 and, like norepinephrine, is thought to phosphorylate SERT via TAAR1. [168][169], The full profile of amphetamine's short-term drug effects in humans is mostly derived through increased cellular communication or neurotransmission of dopamine,[36] serotonin,[36] norepinephrine,[36] epinephrine,[150] histamine,[150] CART peptides,[4][163] endogenous opioids,[170][171][172] adrenocorticotropic hormone,[173][174] corticosteroids,[173][174] and glutamate,[154][159] which it effects through interactions with CART, 5-HT1A, EAAT3, TAAR1, VMAT1, VMAT2, and possibly other biological targets. ANSWER: Complex question.But you pose a question that while complex, truly deserves to be addressed and thought out carefully. [67] Therapeutic doses of amphetamine also enhance cortical network efficiency, an effect which mediates improvements in working memory in all individuals. Amphetamine can produce many side effects, ranging from mild to severe. 3. [27][38] Less common side effects include anxiety, change in libido, grandiosity, irritability, repetitive or obsessive behaviors, and restlessness;[sources 8] these effects depend on the user's personality and current mental state. [36][37] Notably, amphetamine and trace amines possess high binding affinities for TAAR1, but not for monoamine autoreceptors. As it is a prodrug, lisdexamfetamine is structurally different from dextroamphetamine, and is inactive until it metabolizes into dextroamphetamine. [2] Levoamphetamine was previously available as Cydril. [36] Phosphorylation by either protein kinase can result in DAT internalization (non-competitive reuptake inhibition), but PKC-mediated phosphorylation alone induces the reversal of dopamine transport through DAT (i.e., dopamine efflux). [sources 7], At normal therapeutic doses, the most common psychological side effects of amphetamine include increased alertness, apprehension, concentration, initiative, self-confidence and sociability, mood swings (elated mood followed by mildly depressed mood), insomnia or wakefulness, and decreased sense of fatigue. According to the authors, side effects were minimal, and no drug dependency was seen. 3 X 1mL Liquid LSD Vial – 5000ug. Amphetastream is live now — playing Fortnite. [210], A large number of alternative synthetic routes to amphetamine have been developed based on classic organic reactions. Wanna play? Part I, “Amphetamine,” features solely Smino, with [27] Due to the effect pH has on absorption, amphetamine also interacts with gastric acid reducers such as proton pump inhibitors and H2 antihistamines, which increase gastrointestinal pH (i.e., make it less acidic). [109] One review noted that exercise may also prevent the development of a drug addiction by altering ΔFosB or c-Fos immunoreactivity in the striatum or other parts of the reward system. [168][169], Acute amphetamine administration in humans increases endogenous opioid release in several brain structures in the reward system. From the 1930s, amphetamine was used to treat affective disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. [211] Another example employs the Ritter reaction (method 3). The information contained in the Truven Health Micromedex products as delivered by GoodRx is intended as an educational aid only. In a person with this condition, strong emotions can trigger a sudden loss of muscle tone, or cataplexy, which causes a person to collapse and possibly fall down. Amphetamines are psychostimulant drugs that abnormally speed up the functions of the brain and body. [220], Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 in Germany by Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu who named it phenylisopropylamine;[204][228][229] its stimulant effects remained unknown until 1927, when it was independently resynthesized by Gordon Alles and reported to have sympathomimetic properties. [106], A systematic review and meta-analysis from 2019 assessed the efficacy of 17 different pharmacotherapies used in RCTs for amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction;[126] it found only low-strength evidence that methylphenidate might reduce amphetamine or methamphetamine self-administration. [38] If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may reduce gastrointestinal motility (the rate at which content moves through the digestive system);[38] however, amphetamine may increase motility when the smooth muscle of the tract is relaxed. [26][77][78] Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and release of dopamine in the central nervous system. PubChem CID 5761. Sie sind illegale Suchtmittel und verfügen über eine halluzinogene und aufputschende Wirkung. It stimulates or excites the central nervous system, which results in a feeling of higher energy, focus, confidence, and, to a degree, euphoria. [36][150] Like dopamine, amphetamine has low, micromolar affinity at the human 5-HT1A receptor. The most popular Windows alternative is Don't Sleep, which is free.If that doesn't suit you, our users have ranked 33 alternatives to Amphetamine and eight of them are available for Windows so hopefully you can find a suitable replacement. Free, Confidential Live Chat. [25][70][71] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 5–35% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for enhancement of academic performance rather than as recreational drugs. While amphetamines offer a range a treatment benefits, amphetamines exist as one of the most addictive drug classes on the market. Withdrawal symptoms include depression and sleep disturbances. Amphetamines and amphetamine derivatives have been used in the past to treat narcolepsy. Create New Account. [sources 4], Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy (a sleep disorder), and obesity, and is sometimes prescribed off-label for its past medical indications, particularly for depression and chronic pain. Forgot account? Nagai Nagayoshi, a Japanese chemist and pharmacologist, first isolated ephedrine in 1885. [38][176], In certain brain regions, amphetamine increases the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic cleft. [240][241] Some countries, such as South Korea and Japan, have banned substituted amphetamines even for medical use. A review published in Cochrane in 2011 suggested that adults with ADHD might benefit from short-term use of amphetamines, but that they were unlikely to persist with the treatment because of adverse effects. Soon after Alles' di… According to a National Geographic TV documentary on methamphetamine, an entire subculture known as party and play is based around sexual activity and methamphetamine use. [205][206] One example is the Friedel–Crafts alkylation of benzene by allyl chloride to yield beta chloropropylbenzene which is then reacted with ammonia to produce racemic amphetamine (method 2). [note 15][136], In rodents and primates, sufficiently high doses of amphetamine cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity, or damage to dopamine neurons, which is characterized by dopamine terminal degeneration and reduced transporter and receptor function. They can be legal or illegal. The Meme Book. [45][196] Like amphetamine, both phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine regulate monoamine neurotransmission via TAAR1;[36][195][196] unlike amphetamine, both of these substances are broken down by monoamine oxidase B, and therefore have a shorter half-life than amphetamine. [238] During 2012, approximately 5.9 metric tons of illicit amphetamine were seized within EU member states;[239] the "street price" of illicit amphetamine within the EU ranged from €6–38 per gram during the same period. [27][39][40] Although very rare, this psychosis can also occur at therapeutic doses during long-term therapy. Amphetamines are derived from ephedra (Ephedra sinica), a plant native to China and Mongolia.For centuries, many cultures have used ephedra as a … [sources 14] SLC1A1 is excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), a glutamate transporter located in neurons, SLC22A3 is an extraneuronal monoamine transporter that is present in astrocytes, and SLC22A5 is a high-affinity carnitine transporter. [106] Supplemental magnesium[note 14] treatment has been shown to reduce amphetamine self-administration (i.e., doses given to oneself) in humans, but it is not an effective monotherapy for amphetamine addiction. [11] Roughly 90% of ingested amphetamine is eliminated 3 days after the last oral dose. Using amphetamines can lead to addiction. Amphetamine (Glass, Crystal, Speed) sind Substanzen, die synthetisch hergestellt werden und zum Teil auch in Medikamenten zu finden sind. [139] Prolonged elevations of brain temperature above 40 °C likely promote the development of amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in laboratory animals by facilitating the production of reactive oxygen species, disrupting cellular protein function, and transiently increasing blood–brain barrier permeability. Today at 12:33 AM. methamphetamine, which is a more potent form of amphetamine, known mainly as 'crystal', 'meth', 'rock' or 'ice'. ToonHub. Forgot account? [38], Cardiovascular side effects can include hypertension or hypotension from a vasovagal response, Raynaud's phenomenon (reduced blood flow to the hands and feet), and tachycardia (increased heart rate). They are addictive. [204] For example, during the early 1970s in the United States, amphetamine became a schedule II controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act. Not Now. Amphetamines increase energy levels and alertness. or. [5] Amphetamine is eliminated via the kidneys, with 30–40% of the drug being excreted unchanged at normal urinary pH. [sources 3], Amphetamine belongs to the phenethylamine class. For this reason, a person can easily consume something they do not expect to consume. Amphetameme. or. There is substantial variation in microbiome composition and microbial concentrations by anatomical site. The public caught onto methamphetamine rather quickly and began to use it to stay alert and/or lose weight. Physicians prescribe them for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and other health conditions. [114] The few studies that have used equivalent (weight-adjusted) human therapeutic doses and oral administration show that these changes, if they occur, are relatively minor. Synonyms and alternate spellings include: Enantiomers are molecules that are mirror images of one another; they are structurally identical, but of the opposite orientation. creds … The Evekeo brand … [27][38] In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an "amphetamine use disorder" resulted in an estimated 3,788 deaths worldwide (3,425–4,145 deaths, 95% confidence). [58] Children with ADHD who use stimulant medications generally have better relationships with peers and family members, perform better in school, are less distractible and impulsive, and have longer attention spans. Fig. [38] Amphetamine also has a slight analgesic effect and can enhance the pain relieving effects of opioids. [39] Psychosis rarely arises from therapeutic use. Learn more about healthful foods that may help prevent breast cancer or…, Yoga pants are a comfortable clothing option for exercise and workouts. However, in the 1950s and 1960s, amid growing concern about its adverse effects, it was replaced by newly available antidepressants. [242][243] In other nations, such as Canada (schedule I drug),[244] the Netherlands (List I drug),[245] the United States (schedule II drug),[27] Australia (schedule 8),[246] Thailand (category 1 narcotic),[247] and United Kingdom (class B drug),[248] amphetamine is in a restrictive national drug schedule that allows for its use as a medical treatment.[237][30]. Amphetamine has been trialed for a wide variety of conditions. In der Medizin setzt man sie vorwiegend bei adhs bzw. Amphetamines are a collective group of drugs that include amphetamines and amphetamine derivatives such as dextroamphetamine, levoamphetamine, and methamphetamine. [2][35][46] However, oral suspension and orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage forms composed of the free base were introduced in 2015 and 2016, respectively. According to a Cochrane review on withdrawal in individuals who compulsively use amphetamine and methamphetamine, "when chronic heavy users abruptly discontinue amphetamine use, many report a time-limited withdrawal syndrome that occurs within 24 hours of their last dose. [21][167] In humans, the only post-synaptic receptor at which amphetamine is known to bind is the 5-HT1A receptor, where it acts as an agonist with low micromolar affinity. [134] Mild withdrawal symptoms from the discontinuation of amphetamine treatment at therapeutic doses can be avoided by tapering the dose. This synthetic intermediate can be transformed into amphetamine using either a Hofmann or Curtius rearrangement (method 4). [62][63] A Cochrane review on the treatment of ADHD in children with tic disorders such as Tourette syndrome indicated that stimulants in general do not make tics worse, but high doses of dextroamphetamine could exacerbate tics in some individuals. Amphetamines are stimulant drugs that speed up the central nervous system. [108] ΔFosB is the most significant biomolecular mechanism in addiction because ΔFosB overexpression (i.e., an abnormally high level of gene expression which produces a pronounced gene-related phenotype) in the D1-type medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens is necessary and sufficient[note 12] for many of the neural adaptations and regulates multiple behavioral effects (e.g., reward sensitization and escalating drug self-administration) involved in addiction. Amphetamine is a drug that stimulates your central nervous system. [194] The first amphetamine-metabolizing microbial enzyme, tyramine oxidase from a strain of E. coli commonly found in the human gut, was identified in 2019. Amphetameme. 2,950,309", "Review: Synthetic Methods for Amphetamine", "Recommended methods of the identification and analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and their ring-substituted analogues in seized materials", "Approved Treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Amphetamine (Adderall), Methylphenidate (Ritalin), and Atomoxetine (Straterra)", "Enantiomeric separation and quantitation of (±)-amphetamine, (±)-methamphetamine, (±)-MDA, (±)-MDMA, and (±)-MDEA in urine specimens by GC-EI-MS after derivatization with (, "Part 341 – cold, cough, allergy, bronchodilator, and antiasthmatic drug products for over-the-counter human use", "Comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of six immunoassays for the detection of amphetamines in urine", "Annual prevalence of use of drugs, by region and globally, 2016", "Mixing the Medicine: The unintended consequence of amphetamine control on the Northern Soul Scene", "Paul Erdos, Mathematical Genius, Human (In That Order)", "Statistical Bulletin 2018 − prevalence of drug use", European drug report 2014: Trends and developments, "List of psychotropic substances under international control", "Moving to Korea brings medical, social changes", "Importing or Bringing Medication into Japan for Personal Use", "Table of controlled Narcotic Drugs under the Thai Narcotics Act", "Drug Approval Package: Amphetamine (Amphetamine)", "Adzenys XR-ODT- amphetamine tablet, orally disintegrating", "Mydayis- dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, and amphetamine sulfate capsule, extended release", "Drug Approval Package: Mydayis (mixed salts of a single-entity amphetamine product)", "Adzenys ER- amphetamine suspension, extended release", "Drug Approval Package: Adzenys XR-ODT (amphetamine)", "Evekeo ODT- amphetamine sulfate tablet, orally disintegrating", "Zenzedi- dextroamphetamine sulfate tablet", "Drug Approval Package: Vyvanse (Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate) NDA #021977", Comparative Toxicogenomics Database entry: Amphetamine, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database entry: CARTPT, Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management, Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Legal history of cannabis in the United States, Council of the European Union decisions on designer drugs, Arguments for and against drug prohibition, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amphetamine&oldid=997942799, Drugs acting on the cardiovascular system, Excitatory amino acid reuptake inhibitors, Treatment and management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited substances, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Infobox drug articles with non-default infobox title, Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from February 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 00:23. [27][38] Amphetamine products such as Adderall, Dexedrine, and their generic equivalents are currently approved by the USFDA for long-term therapeutic use. Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. However, some studies show that any reduction in growth speed may be caught up by a “growth rebound” once the drug has stopped being taken. Today at 1:36 PM. [sources 16] Amphetamine has a variety of excreted metabolic products, including 4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetone, benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone. Also known as meth, blue, ice, and crystal, among many other terms, it takes the form of a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol. Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage,[49][50] but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines, at therapeutic dosages, appear to improve brain development and nerve growth. [109][131] This is the opposite of pathological stimulant use, which induces decreased striatal DRD2 density. In particular, amphetamine may decrease the effects of sedatives and depressants and increase the effects of stimulants and antidepressants. [210] In addition, several enantioselective syntheses of amphetamine have been developed. Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers, levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine, in their pure amine forms. Amphetameme. This can be hazardous, and, in some cases, fatal. According to one review, amphetamine can be prescribed to individuals with a history of abuse provided that appropriate medication controls are employed, such as requiring daily pick-ups of the medication from the prescribing physician. Nutrition and mental health: Is there a link? This list of amphetamines is inclusive of many of the amphetamines or amphetamine containing drugs that are marketed under various brand names throughout the U.S. [36][57] The concentrations of the main neurotransmitters involved in reward circuitry and executive functioning, dopamine and norepinephrine, increase dramatically in a dose-dependent manner by amphetamine because of its effects on monoamine transporters. So far prizes have been an Xbox Series X, vBucks, T-Shirts and an Oculus Quest 2. Stimulants such as amphetamine (Adderall) and methylphenidate (Ritalin and Concerta) are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). [sources 10], ΔJunD, a transcription factor, and G9a, a histone methyltransferase enzyme, both oppose the function of ΔFosB and inhibit increases in its expression. Amphetamine is a powerful stimulator of the central nervous system. Log In. CAS Number 50-37-3. Amphetamine sulphate, or speed, is also used for recreational and non-medical purposes. Amphetamine is a synthetic stimulant-type medication. Amphetamine is a commonly used street drug. Add my Epic: Amphetastream :) Every 100 Stars enters you into a giveaway for HUGE prize! GUESS WOT ITS FORTNITE AGAIN LMAO . [13][47][203] The class includes amphetamine itself, stimulants like methamphetamine, serotonergic empathogens like MDMA, and decongestants like ephedrine, among other subgroups. Pages Liked by This Page. Now, it is mainly used to treat ADHD, and, rarely, depression. In the key step, this intermediate is reduced by catalytic hydrogenation with a transfer of chirality to the carbon atom alpha to the amino group. Amphetamines are psychostimulant drugs, which means they speed up the messages travelling between the brain and the body. [25][65] A systematic review from 2014 found that low doses of amphetamine also improve memory consolidation, in turn leading to improved recall of information. However, animal studies have suggested that this is unlikely. Dopamine is associated with pleasure, movement, and attention. [45][196] In turn, N-methylphenethylamine is metabolized from phenethylamine by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, the same enzyme that metabolizes norepinephrine into epinephrine. Under the name Benzedrine, amphetamines were first used to treat obesity in the 1930s, due to their appetite-suppressing capabilities. [sources 17] Techniques such as immunoassay, which is the most common form of amphetamine test, may cross-react with a number of sympathomimetic drugs. [109][108] Consequently, ΔFosB is the most significant factor involved in both amphetamine addiction and amphetamine-induced sexual addictions, which are compulsive sexual behaviors that result from excessive sexual activity and amphetamine use. [sources 1], The first amphetamine pharmaceutical was Benzedrine, a brand which was used to treat a variety of conditions. Used outside the medical context, stimulants can have severe adverse effects. [125][126][127] Reviews from 2015 and 2016 indicated that TAAR1-selective agonists have significant therapeutic potential as a treatment for psychostimulant addictions;[37][128] however, as of February 2016,[update] the only compounds which are known to function as TAAR1-selective agonists are experimental drugs. [25] The euphoric and locomotor-stimulating effects of amphetamine are dependent upon the magnitude and speed by which it increases synaptic dopamine and norepinephrine concentrations in the striatum. [59][60] The Cochrane reviews[note 7] on the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults with pharmaceutical amphetamines stated that short-term studies have demonstrated that these drugs decrease the severity of symptoms, but they have higher discontinuation rates than non-stimulant medications due to their adverse side effects.