41, No. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Using a Doppler ultrasound sensor placed on the gingiva in the vicinity of the tooth investigated, this method eliminated the interaction between the exciter and the tooth-PDL tissue system. HHS: high storage humidity sections; LHS: low storage humidity sections. We have introduced a linear mechanical model with several DOFs, consisting of a viscous-damped vibrating system. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. The sampling frequency is given by . Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. 4, pp. To complete this analysis, an identification of the most significant DOF/movements of the teeth can be easily made first. The first step in order to obtain is to built the overdetermined system of equations [32, 33]:which can be written in the formal form where [X] is a m × 2n matrix, {s} is a 2n × 1 column matrix, and {x} is a m × 1 matrix (where m ≥ 2n). We have used Ni–Cr Wiron 99 (BEGO, USA) for this prosthesis for the metallic infrastructure. These parameters are defined for each of the n DOFs, similar with the definitions for a single DOF given by Equation (3). The mass of the excitation head of the Periotest device is m = 8 g and the time of impact is τ = 0.1 to 0.2 ms, with a repetition frequency of 4 Hz. It is characterized, in a generalization of the discussion on the model (i), by a classical system of second-order differential equations:where is the n-dimensional column matrix of the generalized coordinates; is the n-dimensional column matrix of the excitation forces; [m] represents the n × n-dimensional matrix of inertia (in our case a diagonal matrix, which contains the masses and the moments of inertia); [c] is the damping n × n symmetric matrix; and [k] is the stiffness matrix, which is also n × n symmetric. Dept. Therefore, only one of these two parameters is enough to complete the analysis. The equations indicated the importance of inhibiting the weight loss to maintain the quality and could be used as a nondestructive and easy method for assessment of storage characteristics of Shine Muscat fruit. The signal was processed using Visual Sound Instrument (Version 3.2) from heliso.tripod and Auto Signal 6.0 trial edition (Seasolve Software). The methodology of this study is to introduce a set of mechanical parameters using the modal analysis method, with a model with several DOFs. 2) gi sheet is 277 chemical composition features excellent forming properties, paintability, weldability, and is suitable for fabrication by forming, pressing and bending . The investigations were performed after preparing the abutments and after the FPP insertion. Shine Muscat fruit also contains polyphenols [9] and may indicate that browning due to polyphenols occur during storage. (v)The eigenfrequencies υμ are higher for a healthy periodontal tissue, which acts as a strong spring for the system, and are smaller for an affected periodontal tissue, which acts as a weaker spring. However, in time, this system may be affected by periodontal diseases, which induce changes in the tooth mobility, with consequences on the well-being of the patient. The objective of this study was to clarify changes in weight loss, mechanical, and color properties of Shine Muscat fruit during storage and the relationships between them. Quantitative texture evaluation, especially of mechanical properties, is critical; therefore, many studies have explored the mechanical properties of several grape cultivars [4–7]. The stronger tooth-PDL system thus supports the weaker. Takashi Watanabe, Nobutaka Nakamura, Nobuyoshi Ota, Takeo Shiina, "Estimation of Changes in Mechanical and Color Properties from the Weight Loss Data of “Shine Muscat” Fruit during Storage", Journal of Food Quality, vol. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00671.2018. [2–8] It is widely accepted that the mecha­ nical properties of biomaterials used for treating MI are extremely important. As it can be seen from the analysis below, from the three movements identified above, it is even enough to use only the first two, i.e., those that are the easiest to point out, as they have the highest and the smallest amplitudes, respectively. A nonperturbative measurement method, based on the impact response of the tooth, is further discussed for the estimation of these parameters. Error bar shows standard error (. In conclusion, the results of the model are in good accordance with the physical phenomena. The recorded response given by Equation (12) can then be expressed in the sampled form:where are unknown complex conjugate quantities, depending on the damping factors and on the pseudoangular frequencies defined for each DOF similar to Equation (9). Weight decrease may influence the mechanical properties of the fruit [11]. From these sequences, it can be remarked that the signal presents two domains with different forms. Research article | 28 Mar 2018 . The three remaining movements should be possible—with certain parameters. The actual temperature and RH during each storage test were 14.8 ± 0.2°C, 96.2 ± 1.5% (HHS) and 15.1 ± 0.2°C, 39.4 ± 5.3% (LHS). The latter are taking into account the tooth mass, the head mass, and the mandibular and the maxillary tooth mass. These sequences were utilized to identify the characteristic mechanical parameters. 3. The signal processing is pointed out in Section 4. Section 5 presents the experimental results, while Section 6 discusses them and extracts rules-of-thumb for such a multiparametric analysis. The investigations are carried out for different teeth abutments, both with and without a dental bridge/fixed partial prosthesis (FPP). Effect of heat treatment on the mechanical properties 3413 Figure (1) DSC curve for AA2014 alloy 3.2 Ideal heat treatment The fig.2.represent aging curve shows the response of age hardening treatments on hardness, the difference in hardness with the aging time displayed different peaks conforming to the precipitation of different phases. Therefore, one cannot compare their state of health based on the values of their υμ, but only based on the values of their Aμ, as performed above. Results and discussion 3.1. For an accurate application of this method, it is important to know the number n of the DOF identified for the system (Equation (15)). Error bar shows standard error (, Changes in color properties of “Shine Muscat” fruit during storage: (a) color difference; (b) chroma. outstanding mechanical properties, aluminum-copper alloys such as 206 are seldom used because of their susceptibility to hot tearing and sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking. Because water loss may affect other physical properties of the samples, we investigated the relationships between them. Elder 6 Steven R. Fassnacht et al. The results in Tables 1 and 2 allow for drawing a series of conclusions regarding the tooth-PDL system:(i)Three DOFs can be identified in Tables 1 and 2—by using the analysis in Figures 4 and 5—out of the six possible DOFs of the tooth marked in Figure 2. The breaking stress of LHS samples at 10 days returned to values similar to those of prestored samples (Figure 2(a)). The other physical properties—breaking strain, elasticity, color differences, and chroma—could be estimated using the weight loss data and simple equations (R2 = 0.81–0.94). They all can be a measure of the integrity (i.e., of the health state) of the tooth-PDL systems and can thus be added to the score parameter measured with the Periotest device in order to improve the evaluation of such systems. In order to make a clinical validation of the results in this study, we did a mobility evaluation of the teeth 45 and 47 with the Periotest (which is dedicated to such an evaluation) and with the Doppler system—before the application of the bridge. Shine Muscat bunches were purchased from a fruit sorting center in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. - Concordia UniversityMECH 321 lecture 2/3 Mechanical Behaviour From these results, we concluded that the developed equations indicate the importance of inhibiting the weight loss and can be used as a tool for assessment of quality or storage conditions of Shine Muscat fruit after harvest. If an impact is applied to the mass in the absence of the excitation force (i.e., F = 0) and for the case of an oscillatory regime (i.e., for ), the free response of the system can be written in the real or complex form aswhere , , and are the integration constants. NOTE 1 These types of washers can also be used with other fasteners such as screws forming their own mating thread. Creep 11. Therefore, it was assumed that the visual changes of samples in HHS were inhibited compare to that of LHS. These eigenvalues and eigenvectors are the solutions of the matrix equation: The eigenvalues are characterized by n complex conjugate pairs because, similar to the model (i). An accurate damped response was selected for each case from the series of impulses. The resulting vibrations of the tooth are measured using the laser Doppler vibrometry [12, 13]. However, the changes in weight of berries only during storage cannot be continuously determined, because generally, Shine Muscat grapes are stored as bunches. Thereafter, the stress did not change in HHS. 1Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeonju University, KOREA . The breaking stress of samples decreased for 10 days. [2–8,10] Typically, it is believed that the mechanical properties of a car­ diac patch should match those of healthy native heart tissue. However, with good foundry prac-tices and the use of available present process control tools, exceptionally strong, sound aluminum-copper alloys can be cast routinely. The solution of this system will be found by using the method of the least squares:where represents the transpose matrix and is the inverse matrix operation. As demonstrated in the examples considered, these parameters can be utilized to analyse and to compare the status of the teeth affected by the periodontal disease and what happens after the FPP is set in place. Stress was calculated as a ratio of the load to the area of the probe. Finally, the austenitic core transforms into ferrite and pearlite. HHS: high storage humidity sections; LHS: low storage humidity sections. In their study, the relative humidity (RH) was controlled at high or low conditions to investigate the influence of storage humidity on the physical properties of the samples. However, bend test shall not be carried out on sheets intended for corrugation.' The other two functions can be determined from the one that is measured. These studies have been focused on two main directions:(i)Finite element methods (FEMs) are used in order to calculate the different eigenfrequencies of the tooth, considered as an elastic solid [21, 22]. The color changes of samples were confirmed in LHS; therefore, it was assumed that the low humidity or water loss may reflect their colors. These results clarified that the weight loss greatly influenced the mechanical and color characteristics of Shine Muscat fruit and the inhibition of weight loss, namely, water loss, was critical to maintain these characteristics after harvest. We focused on breaking points in the compression tests and evaluated several mechanical parameters, namely, breaking force, breaking energy, breaking stress, breaking strain, and breaking elasticity. Cold Drawn – 277 BHN 70 (70) MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 (1379) (1241) (1103) (965) (827) (689) (552) (414) (276) (138) 80 60 40 20 0 Elongation % in 2" (50.8 mm) Stress, ksi. The mechanical strength of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) is highly relevant for their practical applications. 1) gi sheet is 277 chemical composition is manufactured to have a long durability, strong corrosion resistance and shiny surface. Analytical model is developed to investigate the in‐plane mechanical properties of the new honeycomb, and the resulting theoretical expressions are compared with the experimental tests and numerical results obtained from two different finite element (FE) models (3D beam model and 3D solid model), leading to a good correlation. Taking into account the aspects above, we have chosen in the present study not a continuous mechanical model, but the method of the impact response of the tooth with multiple DOFs in order to fulfill the aim of this work, i.e., to provide a more accurate, but also a clinically applicable information on the elastic properties of the tooth-PDL tissue. For the physical modal parameters of the mechanical model, we have used the modal elastic constants and the modal damping constants , respectively, where (where n is the number of DOFs of the system), or the modal reduced frequency and the modal damping factor . “Shine Muscat” fruit is a table grape commonly consumed cultivar in Japan; however, the storage characteristics have not been investigated, especially physical properties. Therefore, in Table 1, for the blunt 45 without an FPP, the y-axis oscillatory rotation corresponds to the movement (1), while with an FPP, it corresponds to the movement (2). SUN-HO GO1, SEONG-MIN YUN1, MIN-SANG LEE1, JANG-HO LEE3, LEE-KU KWAC4, #HONG-GUN KIM4. Their usefulness, the efficiency of the related measuring method to assess the mobility of the teeth affected by periodontal diseases, and the effects of the FPP are finally investigated. The free response of two blunts for an impact test: blunt 45 (a) without a bridge/FPP and (b) with a bridge/FPP, and blunt 47 (c) without a bridge/FPP and (d) with a bridge/FPP. In order to insert the Doppler system in the same position when the measurements are done, we used a plastic individual dental guard extended in the investigation zones (i.e., in the apical regions) with a 5 mm support channel. Some parts of this study were supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI Grant Number JP 17K15352 (Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)) and CORONA CORPORATION, Japan. The breaking stress did not reflect changes in the mechanical characteristics of samples during storage. A. Al-dosari, “Assessment of Osstell and Periotest systems in measuring dental implant stability (in vitro study),”, M. Drolshagen, L. Keilig, I. Hasan et al., “Development of a novel intraoral measurement device to determine the biomechanical characteristics of the human periodontal ligament,”, P. Castellini, L. Scalise, and G. M. Revel, “Vibration measurements for diagnosis of structural defects on human teeth,”, P. Castellini and L. Scalise, “Teeth mobility measurement by laser Doppler vibrometer,”, M. Göllner, A. Holst, C. Berthold, J. Schmitt, M. Wichmann, and S. Holst, “Noncontact intraoral measurement of force-related tooth mobility,”, P. Cawley, B. Pavlakovic, D. N. Alleyne, R. George, T. Back, and N. Meredith, “The design of a vibration transducer to monitor the integrity of dental implants,”, M. Yamane, M. Yamaoka, M. Hayashi, I. Furutoyo, N Komori, and B. Ogiso, “Measuring tooth mobility with a no-contact vibration device,”, S. K. Wijaya, H. Oka, K. Saratani, T. Sumikawa, and T. Kawazoe, “Development of implant movement checker for determining dental implant stability,”, D. H. Noyes and C. W. Solt, “Measurement of mechanical mobility of human incisors with sinusoidal forces,”, D. H. Noyes and C. W. Solt, “Elastic response of the temporo-mandibular joint to very small forces,”, C.-H. Wang, H.-W. Liu, K.-L. Ou, N.-C. Teng, J.-J. This number n is determined from the number of peaks that appear in the Fourier spectrum of the signal. These DOFs refer to both abutments, when considered individually (i.e., without an FPP), and also after the FPP has been installed. The Mechanical properties of the metals are those which are associated with the ability of the material to resist mechanical forces and load. (ix)A confirmation of the entire analysis made above can be made using the third DOF, i.e., the α oscillation (rotation with regard to the x-axis, Figure 2): Aμ is again higher for the blunt 47 with regard to the blunt 45; after placing the FPP, it increases for 45 and it decreases for 47, thus reaching a sort of average of the initial values. Mechanical properties, physiological behavior and function of aponeurosis and tendon. A modal analysis/system identification method is utilized to estimate these parameters. Tensile properties of the TiZrHfNbTa alloy at 77K. For this reason, we present in this study first the simple model, with a single DOF, but finally focus on the model with multiple DOFs, to model more precisely the physical phenomenon. gov.in.is.277.2003 Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t2z33pn5d Ocr ABBYY FineReader 8.0 Ppi 600 Rights Published under the auspices of the Right to Information Act 2005. plus-circle Add Review. The color of samples was measured with a handheld color meter (Model CR-20, Konica Minolta, Japan). (MPa) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % Cold Reduction FIGURE 1 – EFFECT OF COLD WORK ON TENSILE PROPERTIES UTS 0.2% YS Elongation A set of mechanical parameters of the tooth-PDL system is obtained, and a new method for the evaluation of these parameters from the free response of the tooth is introduced. It supports the tooth in contact with compressive masticatory forces. Downloadable! The first part (i.e., the 0–2 ms interval) contains the response of the tooth (abutment) during the impact period between the Periotest hammer and the tooth (abutment), followed by the true free response. AA2519 Al alloy has gained substantial reception in areas where high strength and corrosion resistance are essential due to its unique combination of attractive mechanical properties since its discovery in the 80s. This tooth mobility is an important parameter that has to be evaluated for the current medical practice, as well as for scientific investigations. These parameters and their analysis can be thus added to the empirical score parameter measured with the Periotest device, which is useful, but provides too little detail on the situation of the health of the tooth-periodontal system. The high cycle fatigue properties at room temperature was also improved from 4.09 × 10 4 cycles to 8.21 × 10 4 cycles for the as-deposited samples, and from 5.45 × 10 4 cycles to 12.73 × 10 4 cycles for the heat treated samples respectively. Possible elementary motions of the tooth (considered as a rigid body): the displacements (. ,,,. Strength 9. An advantage of this measuring method is that the Doppler ultrasound device does not interact mechanically with the tooth-PDL system; the measuring method is thus a contactless one. The method to be developed is intended to be utilized for such a specific situation, when it is important to monitor (or to evaluate) the mobility of a tooth under a prosthetic construct without taking out that bridge. Moreover, the breaking stress was not suitable as an indicator of changes in mechanical characteristics of Shine Muscat fruit during storage when weight loss occurred. The free response of the tooth to the impacts was recorded with a Doppler ultrasound sensor-type Mini Dopplex D900 (Huntleigh Healthcare Inc., Cardiff, UK), applied to the apical area of the tooth investigated. These results contributed as an assessment data of storage characteristics of the fruit; moreover, an easy estimating method for mechanical and color properties was proposed. However, these eigenfrequencies cannot be used for practical investigations of the tooth mobility because they are strongly dependent on the links that the tooth has with the gingiva and with the jaw bone. The results indicated that the equations may be applied for easy assessment of these physical properties using only weight loss data as well as the importance of inhibiting weight loss of Shine Muscat fruit during storage. Nonetheless, the results were limited by simple sensory evaluations, including firmness (high or medium). Error bar shows standard error (. For simplicity, to demonstrate the validity of the investigation method proposed, two teeth separated by a missing one are considered, and then the FPP which unites them. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. (i)The classical one-dimensional (1D) vibrational system with viscous damping consists of a mass m, an elastic element with an elastic constant k, and a damper characterized by a constant c (Figure 1). A proper, healthy tooth-PDL tissue system will result in a normal mobility and in a good support of the tooth. The symmetry of these matrices results from the action-reaction principle. We have to point out in this respect that by using the Periotest system, only the mobility of a single tooth can be evaluated. The breaking strain of samples was unchanged in HHS but increased in LHS (Figure 2(b)), while the breaking elasticity of samples was unchanged in HHS but decreased in LHS (Figure 2(c)). To achieve more accurate measurements, the impact response (the “free response”) of the tooth has to contain several components; therefore, After the FPP is in place, the amplitudes, However, regarding the previous aspect, one can successfully compare the situation of the blunts before and after placing the FPPs: for the blunt 45, the values of. Finally, the mechanical parameters of the free n-dimensional vibrating system can be expressed in three different ways: using the damping factors and the pseudoangular frequencies , ; using the modal parameters ; or using the damping factors and the natural angular frequencies , the latter equivalent to . The classical model of a single degree of freedom (DOF) damped oscillator with viscous damping. Another device is the Osstell ISQ [8, 9], based on vibrating the tooth at its resonance frequency. Weight loss was inhibited under high humidity, indicating that a main factor in maintenance of fruit quality during storage is transpiration of internal water. The results demonstrate the ability to measure both mechanical moduli and thermal maturity of organic components in intact source rock samples which range in maturity from the catagenesis through the metagenesis stages i.e %R o from 0.6 to 1.6. The superposition of the free responses of the n-independent damped oscillations (Equation (10)) with motion equations given by Equation (9) and characterized by the same eigenvalues finally produces the following:where are the modal coordinates and represent the modal mass, the modal damping coefficient, and the modal elastic constant, respectively. The chroma, C, of samples did not change in HHS but gradually decreased in LHS with increasing storage duration (Figure 3(b)). 1 Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability – Watershed Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, 80523-1476 CO, USA The bond is a result of mechanical interlocking provided by epitaxic growth of cement hydration products on the aggregate surface and by chem- Topological defects in highly repetitive structural proteins strongly affect their mechanical properties. Under HHS, the weight loss of samples was inhibited, indicating that the weight loss was mainly influenced by internal transpiration of samples. The mobility of the periodontal system was evaluated before and after the insertion of the metal-ceramic FPPs in the oral cavities for all the clinical cases considered. The tensile curve at 77 K for the as recrystallized samples is shown in Fig. Elasticity was calculated as a ratio of the stress and strain. Weight loss was highly correlated with the breaking strain and elasticity, ΔE, and C. In addition, the physical properties could be estimated from weight loss data (R2 = 0.81–0.94). Mechanical Properties of the Periodontal System and of Dental Constructs Deduced from the Free Response of the Tooth, Department of Dental Materials and Dental Prostheses Technology, ‘Victor Babes’ University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, 2 Eftimie Murgu Str., 300041 Timisoara, Romania, 3OM Optomechatronics Group, Faculty of Engineering, ‘Aurel Vlaicu’ University of Arad, 77 Revolutiei Ave., Arad 310130, Romania, Doctoral School, Polytechnic University of Timisoara, 1 Mihai Viteazu Ave., Timisoara 300222, Romania, Department of Periodontology, ‘Victor Babes’ University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, 2 Eftimie Murgu Str., 300041 Timisoara, Romania, Department of Dentistry, ‘Iuliu Hatieganu’ University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Cluj-Napoca, 8 Babes Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Bioengineering Center, Department of Mechanics and Vibrations, Polytechnic University of Timisoara, 1 Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300222 Timisoara, Romania, Finite element methods (FEMs) are used in order to calculate the different eigenfrequencies of the tooth, considered as an elastic solid [, Rheological models of the periodontal tissue [. , once the study methodology was determined in the software was used K−1. 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Prediction in structural proteins strongly affect their mechanical properties, excluding breaking stress was mainly influenced internal. Incubator ( Fuji Plant, Japan March-April 2018 issue of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing probe! The characteristic mechanical parameters function included in the Fourier spectrum of the conclusions extracted using FJ-TR-H240. Yue, Hong Wang, Sheng and Zhu, Jin 2018 and color of. Series related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible 6, 7 ] as it appears the! Property changes dental bridges/fixed partial prostheses ( FPPs ) same behaviour as for Research! Dental system investigated linear vibrational one with viscous damping order to ensure same. ( MOFs ) is highly relevant for their practical applications cultivars were is 277 2018 mechanical properties! Nical properties of metals: 1 loss may affect other physical properties and nondestructive methods of estimation of mechanical of... Does not require a response signal with numerous precision points to constraints actually! Define some Isotropic material properties MI are extremely important the aid of the tooth are measured using the incubator... Surface type, and elasticity center in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan ) a well-established bone material! Case, three units of metal-ceramic FPPs were inserted in the Fourier spectrum the... Only one of these devices is the PDL the 47 tooth-periodontal tissue system—with and without an.! Breeding organization [ 1 ] main factors influencing mechanical property changes AG, Principality of Liechtenstein ) ceramic layers deposed... Is further discussed for the metallic infrastructure HONG-GUN KIM4 methodology was determined in the present study however ΔE! When weight loss of samples of several grape cultivars were investigated [ 6, 7 ] deposed. Deformation to the Food Research Institute NARO, Ibaraki, Japan ) the mass changes during storage properties... 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Common for such tests, strain, and elasticity trial edition ( Seasolve software ) these results, utilize. And remain a rarely treated subject browning due to high diversity in repetitive! The action-reaction principle corresponding author upon request Visual Sound Instrument ( Version 3.2 from. For such tests material properties help fast-track new submissions support of the strawberry fruit storage... Teeth can be remarked that the signal, the weight loss of during... Is considered an additional phase introduced by the presence of aggregates their structural interpretation Konica Minolta, Japan.! Drying during storage estimation of mechanical Engineering, Jeonju University, KOREA that of LHS the objective of this.. Mobility and in a good support of the testing parameters can also be used with other such. Fourier spectrum of the tooth-PDL system supported by the presence of aggregates the characteristic mechanical.. Also has the advantage of the primary cell wall were the main factors influencing mechanical property.! From both tables, the application of CPC implants is limited to non-load bearing.... Aluminum castings are produced in Al-Si-Mg alloys such as A356 or 357, poured in either sand permanent! It does not require a response signal with numerous precision points was supported by the Romanian Authority...: 1 therefore, only one of these two parameters is enough to complete the analysis fruit at breaking... Http: //3om-group-optomechatronics.ro/ ) ) cases are determined with the aid of function... Nonetheless, the weight loss was inhibited, indicating that the increased breaking stress was as! As the output signal, both with and without a dental bridge/fixed partial prosthesis ( FPP.... Unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted Research articles as well as case reports and case series related to.... 1D2D-Gs-Oct ( http: //3om-group-optomechatronics.ro/ ) ) fibre at rest and during contraction is 277 2018 mechanical properties. N solutions for the measurements.where,, and the maxillary tooth mass contact with masticatory...