A scale is an ordered collection of half- and whole-steps (see Chapter 5: Half- and Whole-steps; Accidentals; The Black Keys of the Piano to review half- and whole-steps). What are the scale degree names in music? The third key signature in Example 8 is in tenor clef, and its second-to-last flat is G♭. The third key signature in Example 7 is in alto clef. If you continue clockwise, sharp key signatures appear, each subsequent key signature adding one more sharp. You will notice that nearly every piece of music ends on the tonic, or a chord built on the … Supertonic %! We'll learn more about what those functions are in more advanced tutorials. This step shows the B major scale degrees - tonic, supertonic, mediant, subdominant, dominant, submediant, leading note / tone, and octave. Name the following scales: 2. Identify notes by scale degree names 7. Therefore, this is the key signature of G♭ major. four clefs that we have learned: The order of sharps is always F, C, G, D, A, E, B. The first and last note is the tonic. The order of the flats is the opposite of the order of the sharps: B, E, A, D, G, C, F. This makes the order of flats and sharps palindromes. Identify triads, on random roots, by Roman numerals 4. Each note of the scale, or scale degree, has a conventional name. Scale degrees are indicated with a caret “^” above the note’s number in the scale. There is one other “trick” which might make memorization of the key signatures easier. The order of the flats and sharps and key signatures is the same, regardless of clef. The syllables Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, and Ti can be applied to the first seven notes of any major scale. You must say and write the flat, because B is different from the note B♭. Scale: _____ A AAAAA AA Scale: _____ 3 3 3 3 3 ' AN AAAAN AN AANA IA AAAA IIA+N 2 5 9 10 4 1 PageBlitzBooksT2Supplement2 www.blitzbooks.com.au 1. # Subdominant '! Strict Four-Voice Composition, Partimenti, and Schemata, A brief history of basso continuo keyboard-style voice-leading, Tendency tones and functional harmonic dissonances, Generating Roman numerals from a figured bass line, Galant schemas – The Rule of the Octave and Harmonising the Scale with Sequences, Foundational Concepts for Phrase-level Forms, Expansion and Contraction at the Phrase Level, V. Diatonic Harmony, Tonicization, and Modulation, Introduction to Harmony, Cadences, and Phrase Endings, Strengthening Endings with Strong Pre-dominants, Prolonging Tonic at Phrase Beginnings with V6 and Inverted V7s, Performing Harmonic Analysis Using the Phrase Model, Prolongation at Phrase Beginnings using the Leading-tone Chord, La (scale degree 6) in the bass at beginnings, middles, and endings, Mi (scale degree 3) in the bass at beginnings, Diatonic Sequences in Middles (in progress--no examples yet), Extended Tonicization and Modulation to Closely Related Keys, Introduction to Harmonic Schemas in Pop Music, Pitch Class Sets, Normal Order, and Transformations, Analyzing with Modes, Scales, and Collections. A major scale, a sound with which you are undoubtedly familiar, consists of seven whole (W) and half (H) steps in the following succession: W-W-H-W-W-W-H. Any seven note scale (diatonic scale) begins with the tonic, and other degree names are based on their position in relation to the tonic. Note that the pattern of half- and whole-steps is the same in every major scale, as shown in Examples 1 and 2. The Scale Degrees have these names for a reason. 5th above tonic note. The most important scale degree is the tonic, the second most important is the dominant. Learn how to figure out the scale degree of any note based on a key signature. , but obviously the note names will be different for each scale / key combination. Each scale degree has a name, shown here in G major: One thing to note is that the 7th Scale Degree is called the Subtonic when you’re in a Minor (Natural) scale and it’s called the Leading Note when in a Major scale. Dominant refers to the 5th scale degree. Complete the Self-Test associated with this section of the Tonal Harmony textbook and check your answers in the Appendix D. How are Scale Degree Names … The different notes of a scale are called scale degrees or scale steps. Scale degree names 1,2,3,4,5,6, and 8 below are always the same for all major and minor scales (ie. Scale degree names are the technical names for the notes of the scale. Category 3: embellishing tones involving static notes, Identifying the phrase model in harmonic analysis, Substituting the leading-tone chord in place of V(7), Using the leading-tone chord as a half-diminished-seventh chord, Writing plagal motion after an authentic cadence, Writing plagal motion at a phrase beginning, Secondary V and V7 as altered diatonic chords, Connection to the lament-bass progression, Ger+6 in major keys ([latex]\downarrow\hat{3}[/latex] vs. [latex]\uparrow\hat{2}[/latex] – me vs. ri), Deriving a CT°7 chord from multiple neighbor tones, More Networks of Neo-Riemannian Transformations, Applying Chord-Scales to Progressions within a Key, Using the clock face to transpose and invert, Important considerations with collections, The Emergence and Evolution of the Twelve-tone Technique, For the ‘attack-sustain’ (‘resonance’) effect, Recognizing and identifying applied chords, Applied V and V7 as altered diatonic chords, Chapter 5: Half- and Whole-steps; Accidentals; The Black Keys of the Piano, Major Scales (Practical Chords and Harmonies), Scale Degree Names (musictheoryfundamentals.com), Solfege History and Tutorial (Earlham College), Scale Degrees, Solfege, and Scale-degree Names (YouTube), Next: Minor Scales, Scale Degrees, and Key Signatures, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Each note of a major scale is also named with. Example 1 depicts a C major scale because its first and last note is a C. Always be sure to include the accidental of the first and last note when you name a scale. Example 2 shows this: The first and last note in Example 2 is a B♭. What is the first scale degree? A major scale always starts and ends on notes of the same letter name, which should be an octave apart. In flat key signatures, the second-to-last flat is the tonic (the first note of a scale). From here we will be looking at the function of notes (scale degree names). Degrees are useful for indicating the size of intervals and chords and whether they are major or minor. This can be remembered with the mnemonic: Fat Cats Go Down Alleys (to) Eat Birds. Notice that sharps are always played on the same lines and spaces, making a somewhat zig-zag pattern, alternating going down and up. 1st or 8th scale degree. But, each scale degree has a special name too which are sometimes referred to as the technical names of the scale. Learn scale degree names with free interactive flashcards. 1st - Tonic; 2nd - Supertonic; 3rd - Mediant; 4th - Subdominant; 5th - Dominant; 6th - Submediant; 7th - Leading Tone The names relate to their function and to their position to each other on the scale, for example the Tonic is the primary tone, the Subdominant is below the Dominant, and the Leading Tone "leads" to the Tonic. Scale Degree Names. The first pitch of the scale, called the tonic, is the pitch upon which the rest of the scale is based. Tonic 1. Major key signatures are said to be “real” if they are one of the key signatures in Examples 10 or 11. Category 1: embellishing tones that move by step. However, B and C♭ major scales have different key signatures—the former (B) is a five sharp key, while the latter (C♭) is a seven flat key. These technical names are directly related to the concept of tonality or key. The most important functions to understand are those of scale degree 1 (tonic), scale degree 5 (dominant) and scale degree 7 (leading tone or subtonic, depending on whether you are in major or minor, respectively). In tenor clef, there is no break, but F♯ and G♯ appear in the lower octave instead of the upper octave. The tonic is the tonal center of a key; it is like home base, where all harmonic tension is released. Example 2. The names of the other scale degrees reflect their relationship to the tonic or dominant. White Key Letter Names of the Piano Keyboard and Octave Equivalence, American Standard Pitch Notation and Pitch versus Pitch Class, Beaming, Stems, Flags, and Multi-measure Rests, Scale Degrees, Solfège, and Scale-degree Names, Minor Scale Degrees, Solfège, and Scale-degree Names, Strategies for Sight-singing and Sight-counting, The “Major Scale” Method for Determining Quality, Doubly and Triply Augmented and Diminished Intervals, Analysis: Purcell’s Sonata in G Minor (Z 807), The Idea Level, The Phrase, and Segmentation Analysis, Two Categories: Archetypes vs. An ordered collection of half- and whole-steps, The relative number of a note in a scale relative to the first note of that scale, A system that pairs each note of a scale with a particular syllable, The numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, Angled bracket placed above Arabic numerals to indicate scale degrees, The application of solemnization syllables (Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, etc.) Scale Degree Scale Degree Name A Minor (Natural) scale Scale Degree Names. to notes within the context of scales, A movable system of names for scale degrees, Accidentals placed at the beginning of a work which apply throughout the work (and which imply a particular tonic), Shows the relationship between major (and/or minor) key signatures, by placing the key signatures around a circle in order of number of accidentals, An ordered collection of half-steps (H) and whole-steps) as follows (ascending): W-W-H-W-W-W-H, Do is the first scale degree in a scale; this is in contrast to Fixed Do, when Do is always the pitch class C, Do is always the pitch class C, Re the pitch class D, etc. Writing … Diatonic scales are scales that include half and whole steps. The Latin prefix “super” means above, so the supertonic is a generic second above the tonic. Therefore, this is the key signature of B♭ major. If you continue from C major counter-clockwise, flat key signatures appear, each subsequent key signature adding one more flat. [footnote]These hybrid forms come from William Caplin (2013), Analyzing Classical Form. Compound), Details about Refrains, Episodes, and Auxiliary Sections in Rondo Form, Authentic cadences (they sound conclusive! The second note is the supertonic. Therefore, this is the key signature of F♯ major. These are: 1st degree – The tonic; 2nd degree – The supertonic; 3rd degree – The mediant; 4th degree – The subdominant; 5th degree – The dominant; 6th degree – The submediant; 7th degree – The leading note (or leading tone) Therefore, this is the key signature of A♭ major. The term scale step is sometimes used synonymously with scale degree, but it may alternatively refer to the distance between two successive and adjacent scale degrees (see steps and skips ). It is important when notating scales that the proper sequence of whole and half steps be followed and that each pitch be written with a different pitch name. Each scale degree has a name: G major scale # $! Write in the scale degrees … INTERVALS. The flats always make a perfect zig-zag pattern, alternating going up and down, regardless of clef, as seen in Example 6. For example, Sol is the fifth scale degree. 1.12 Scale Degree Names LearnMusicTheory.net! " A lot of harmony textbooks use these names, so they’re useful to know. Major scales are named for their first note, which is also their last note. Every given key – whether major or minor – has seven notes and each note is considered a degree and has its relationship and function [most importantly] in … Scale Degrees are solmization syllables notated by Arabic numerals with carets, angled brackets, above them. 5th scale degree. The Purpose of each Scale Degree Name. Incorrect. Feel free to tell me what you think about the topics covered or give ideas for new tutorials that you would like to see added. These names apply to all major and minor scales. Scale Degrees Learn the special names for each note of a scale. When the scale ascends, the tonic is repeated at the end an octave higher.Here is the D major scale. On what scale degree is F in the key of C? 1: Music Theory Fundamentals 38 Section 2.6 SCALE DEGREE NAMES The different notes of a scale are called scale degrees or scale steps.Scale degrees are indicated with a caret “^” above the note’s number in the scale. , but obviously the note names will be different for each scale / key combination. The names are the same for the major and minor scales, only the seventh degree changes name when flattened: Musical scores are temporarily disabled. Example 2 shows these Scale-degree Names applied to an A♭ major scale, with half- and whole-steps labeled:. The last sharp, E♯, is a half-step below the note F♯. In Example 4, there are flats on the lines and spaces that indicate the notes B, E, and A (reading left to right). To practice memorizing these, try taking the Scale Degree Names Quiz. The keynote of a scale. A. key signature. In music theory, each note in this scale has what is called a scale degree name, which describes the relationship of that note to the tonic (1st) note. 「VII」 Subtonic ⭐︎ ︎The “natural” scale degree component of the “natural” minor scale. The leading tone is a generic second below the tonic; it is often thought of as “leading” towards the tonic. Identify triads by scale degree of the root 8. Review and write triads given the key and Roman numeral 11.1 Identify notes with scale degree numbers • A scale degree is a number or name of a note in a scale. The last note is Do, because it is a repetition of the first note. The last sharp, G♯, is a half-step below the note A. Scale degrees are measured by how far the given note's pitch is from the note at the scale's start. For questions, please ask via the feedback form. Each note in a scale has a name that matches its function. For more information check out my detailed guide to scale degree names here. It is found a whole step (M2nd) below the tonic, and has a weaker movement to the Tonic than a Leading Tone. We'll learn more about what those functions are in more advanced tutorials. If you or someone you know would like to author some of the tutorials, please let me know by sending a message to me via the feedback form. Scale degrees are indicated with a caret "^" above the note's number in the scale. Each note in a scale has a name that matches its function. ].” An ascent of notes from C to C: …in whole steps and half steps produces a scale. Unique Forms, Archetype 1: The Sentence (A Special Kind of Phrase), Archetype 2: The Period (A Combination of Two Phrases), The Repeated Phrase (Another Way to Combine Two Phrases), Compound Phrase-level Forms (Combining Archetypes), What’s a hybrid form? Example: C Major Scale Tonic: C Supertonic: D Mediant: E Subdominant: F Dominant: G Submediant: A Leading Tone: B Each Scale Degree also has a corresponding name, as listed in the table below. 2. Any note of any scale can be given a number as well as a name.The first/last note of the scale is often called the \"tonic\" or \"keynote\".In the key/scale of C major, C is the tonic. The 1st is the tonic. In traditional harmony, special names are given to each scale degree. ), Writing Authentic Cadences (TRIADS ONLY! scale_x_discrete(name, breaks, labels, limits) scale_y_discrete(name, breaks, labels, limits) name: x or y axis labels; breaks: control the breaks in the guide (axis ticks, grid lines, …). Specific Intervals Learn how two notes are specifically measured. The tonic functions almost always as the starting point and the ending point. It is the “key note.” Dominant is five scale … In flat key signatures, the second-to-last flat is the tonic. [/footnote], Structure of Individual Sections (Simple vs. C major is the key signature with no sharps or flats, C♭ is the key signature with every note flat (7 flats total), and C♯ is the key signature with every note sharp (7 sharps total). In music theory, the term scale degree refers to the position of a particular note on a scale relative to the tonic, the first and main note of the scale from which each octave is assumed to begin. Choose from 500 different sets of scale degree names flashcards on Quizlet. Example 4 shows a key signature, after a bass clef but before a time signature: Major key signatures collect the accidentals in a major scale and place them at the beginning of a composition so that it is easier to keep track of which notes have accidentals applied to them. Example 1 shows solfège applied to a D major scale, underneath the scale degrees. The different scale degrees also have names. Gravity. Each note of the scale, or scale degree, has a conventional name. Therefore, this is the key signature of A major. Therefore Example 2 is a B♭ (B-flat) major scale. Note the caret above each number. Likewise, the dominant is a generic fifth above the tonic, while the subdominant is a generic fifth below the tonic. The names of the scale degrees are one of the most important things in music theory, they are important in both major and minor scales. Though it may seem complicated, this information is crucial so be sure to master it! Example 5 demonstrates this: In Example 5, both of these Bs will be flat, because B♭ is in the key signature. In C major, C is the tonic note or chord. Example 8 shows a few flat key signatures in different clefs: The first key signature in Example 8 is in bass clef. Terms in this set (7) Tonic. However, our focus in today’s lesson is on traditional scalesgenerally and specifically o… The first (and last) note is called the tonic. Example 13 shows the circle of fifths for major key signatures: If you start at the top of the circle (12 o’clock), the key signature of C major appears, which has no sharps or flats. Writing major scales from tonic and other scale degrees (, Writing and identifying major key signatures (, Major Scale © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, B-flat Major Scale © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Scale Degrees and Solfege © Bryn Hughes is licensed under a, Scale-Degree Names © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Scale-Degree Names by Interval © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Key Signature © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Key Signature Application © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Order of Sharps and Flats © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Sharp Key Signatures Examples © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Flat Key Signature Examples © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, C and F Major Key Signatures © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, All Sharp Key Signatures © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, All Flat Key Signatures © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, F-flat Major Scale © Chelsey Hamm is licensed under a, Circle of Fifths © Bryn Hughes is licensed under a. 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To author a tutorial or Quiz, only written content is needed going... Major or minor F♯ major measured on the diatonic note ], Structure of Individual (. Flat, because B is the same lines and spaces, making a somewhat zig-zag pattern, alternating going and. ), Details about Refrains, Episodes, and its second-to-last flat is D... Are useful for indicating the size of intervals and chords and whether they are one of the key. We have learned up until this point a scale and last ) note is major! Because of this, diatonic melodies often end on the same for all major and scales...