When the Distant Early Warning Line (Dew Line) was being constructed in Canada in the late 1950s, the York was introduced as a freighter by Associated Airways to support the initiative, these being used later in ordinary airline service. The fuselage was of a semi-monocoque construction, complete with a flush-rivetted skin, and was built in five separate sections. In 1943, Canada's Victory Aircraft converted a Lancaster X bomber for civil transport duties with Trans-Canada Airlines (TCA). Lancastrians were used during the Berlin Airlift to transport petrol; 15 aircraft made over 5,000 trips. Technical Data Every model comes with its own 3D Virtual Cockpit to fully capture the spirit and identity of these jets. Wing area:1,297 sq ft (120.5 m²) 6. The aircraft was a twin-motor, a low-wing, retractable undercarriage monoplane with a tailwheel included. Avro (eigentlich A.V. Made of aluminium alloy, the enclosure had eight perspex windows to reduce claustrophobia. Data fromAvro Aircraft since 1908 1. 25 May 1958: A Dan-Air York crashed at Guragon, Bridgeman, Leonard. Ausgangspunkt war eine Entwurfsstudie aus dem Jahr 1953. On 24 June 1960, the first Avro 748 made its maiden flight from the company's Woodford, Cheshire aircraft factory. The Avro RJ is powered by four Honeywell LF507-1F high bypass engines of modular design. The first RAF production order consisted of 200 aircraft; while a further 100 were ordered under a second order placed shortly after. Following the end of the Airlift, the RAF retired much of its York fleet; around 40 of these were sold onto civilian operators while many others were scrapped due to the onset of corrosion. The Avro Type 688 Tudor was a British piston-engined airliner based on Avro's four-engine Lincoln bomber, itself a descendant of the famous Lancaster heavy bomber, and was Britain's first pressurised airliner.Customers saw the aircraft as little more than a pressurised DC-4 Skymaster, and few orders were forthcoming, important customers preferring to buy US aircraft. The original short-fuselage Tudor for the Atlantic route, seating 12-24 passengers. New Aircraft Passenger Aircraft Yellow Brick Road Mode Of Transport British Invasion Airports Aerial Photography Jets Airplanes. His wife Dora and eight aircrew also died. 1 Design and development 2 Operational history 2.1 Specials 3 Variants 4 Operators 4.1 Military operators 4.2 Civil operators 5 Survivors 6 Accidents and incidents 7 Specifications (Avro York… "The Avro Type 685 York. An ideal candidate emerged as the Avro Lancastrian which could easily accommodate the test instrumentation as well as fly on the power of two piston engines if required. 1957. The Avro York was a British transport aircraft developed by Avro during the Second World War.The design was derived from the Avro Lancaster heavy bomber, several sections of the York and Lancaster being identical.Due to the importance of Lancaster production, York output proceeded at a slow pace until 1944, after which a higher priority was placed upon transport aircraft. [1] (After the war Victory Aircraft was purchased by what became Avro Canada). On 3 May 2017, an Airlink Avro RJ85 made the first commercial airline flight in history to Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, a charter flight from Cape Town, South Africa, via Moçâmedes, Angola, to Saint Helena Airport to pick up passengers stranded when the island's only link with the outside world, the British Royal Mail Ship RMS St Helena, suffered propeller damage. Moreover, Avro was also obligated to place a high priority on the manufacturing and refinement of the Lancaster. Listing of all aircraft designed, developed or produced by Avro. [10], On 21 February 1944, the first civilian York (G-AGJA), initially built for the RAF as MW103, received its airworthiness certificate, thus clearing its delivery shortly thereafter to the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC). PASSENGER: Virtual Aircraft Museum / Canada / Avro Canada : One of the first tasks of the new Canadian company, following formation of Avro Aircraft Ltd, was the origination in 1946 of the design for a 50-seat medium-range civil transport. The wreckage was found by a villager in June 1945. [1] Officials had also judged that there was no requirement for large numbers of Yorks at that time. 24 built, 4 by HAL: HS748 Srs 1A: Srs 1 modified with engines and undercarriage as the Srs 2A aircraft. Empty weight:36,457 lb (16,571 kg) 7. The Avro 652 was a British light airliner from the 1930s, designed by A.V. Several Lancastrians were allocated for engine test-bed work with turbojet engines replacing the outer Merlin engines or test piston engines in the inner nacelles. 3. [1] In the midst of an uncertain stage of the Second World War, Britain's aircraft industry was preoccupied by urgent wartime demands, not only to produce military aircraft, but to design increasingly capable models as well. Member of AVRO/AI(R) RJ family updated and re-engined types of BAe-146-300. 20 October 1946: An RAF York crashed on takeoff from Dum Dum. [14], In 1954, the French Aéronavale procured five Yorks from the British Air Ministry and operated the type at Le Bourget for around a year. They would have seated 70 and 80 passengers respectively, but these two designs matured in the Avro RJ70 (officially Avro 146-RJ70) with improved FADEC equipped LF-507 engines and digital avionics. [22] Another York, MW102 was fitted out as a "flying office" for the use of the Viceroy of India and C-in-C South East Asia Command, Lord Mountbatten. takeoff weight:72,000 lb (32,727 kg) with 22,000 (10,000 kg) bomb 9. 23 December 1957: A cargo Scottish Airlines York crashed near Stansted on approach to the airport, killing all four crew. Da die York einen viel größeren und tieferen Rumpf besaß, musste ein zusätzliches Seitenleitwerk eingebaut werden. [5] On 22 April 1944, the York inaugurated an initial UK-Morocco-Cairo route. [1] It had initially been fitted with the twin fins and rudders of the Lancaster but the increased fuselage side area forward of the wing compared to the Lancaster necessitated fitting a third central fin to retain adequate control and directional stability; the third fin was fitted as standard on subsequent production aircraft. After more than 15 years of service, SWISS says goodbye to an icon of the sky, the Avro RJ100, also known as Jumbolino. Our aircraft is available for large group charters as well as for ACMI solutions. [5], In the post-war years, BOAC expanded its use of the York considerably, such as on its Cairo to Durban service, which had previously been operated by Shorts flying boats. 5 September 1999 – Necon Air Flight 128 from Pokhara to Kathmandu, a BAe 748-501 Super 2B (9N-AEG), collided with a communication tower of Nepal Telecommunication Corporation and crashed in a wooded area 25 km west of Kathmandu, while approaching Tribhuvan International Airport. It also served with the RAF; RAF Lancaster I serial number PD328, was converted to a Lancastrian and renamed Aries, as well as serving with Qantas and Flota Aérea Mercante Argentina. On 7 October 1952, BOAC withdrew its Yorks from passenger services, retaining the type for freight operations. The Aviation Safety Network, part of the Flight Safety Foundation, records 23 hull loss accidents involving the Lancastrian occurring between 1946 and 1964. LV626, the first prototype, was rebuilt to the C.II standard, the principal modification of which was the installation of Bristol Hercules VI radial engines in place of the Merlins; it was later decided to standardise on the Merlin engine, leaving this as the sole Hercules-powered York. Early Avro aircraft have been identified in reference works as Roe I Biplane, Roe I Triplane etc., although these designations do not seem to appear in the contemporay press and are unlikely to have been used by Roe or the fledgling company. In May 1986, the aircraft was dismantled and on 23 May made its journey to Duxford on seven low-loaders. Short range regional airliner. Summit Air Avro RJ85 Passenger Jet Take-Off from Gravel Runway Testing at RAE Farnborough found the "egg" to work satisfactorily. What is surprising is that such a fine aircraft should have resulted from Avro’s desperate attempts to remedy the defects of its earlier unsuccessful Manchester bomber. 26 May 1955: An Associated Airways York was damaged beyond repair after hitting an obstacle on takeoff from Edmonton Municipal Airport, Canada. The original prototype first flew in July 1942. [5] Throughout 1944, the majority of Yorks produced were passenger transport aircraft, a batch of both pure freighters and combined passenger/freighter-configured Yorks were also manufactured. The Avro RJ Series includes the Avro RJ aircraft, a four engined regional aircraft series by British Aerospace. This was the worst accident involving this type of aircraft.[6]. In civilian service, British South American Airways (BSAA) and British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) were the largest users of the type. Member of AVRO/AI(R) RJ family updated and re-engined types of BAe-146-300. 29 December 1945: An RAF York crashed and was destroyed by fire near New Milton, Hampshire, England. The Avro Canada C102 Jetliner was a Canadian prototype medium-range turbojet -powered jet airliner built by Avro Canada in 1949. It then retired to 12 Maintenance Unit at Kirkbride for storage prior to disposal. The Avro York was a British transport aircraft developed by Avro during the Second World War. The two aircraft also substantially differed in external appearance. [1], Roy Chadwick, Avro's chief designer, had foreseen a need for a transport aircraft that was powered by four engines and would be capable of flying for long distances. The type formed the basis for the successful Avro Anson, although only two 652 were made. During 1941, Avro elected to begin development of a new civil-orientated transport aircraft. It was ferried to Lasham Airfield and used as a bunk house by the local Air Scouts until 1974. Configurations and Passengers 90 passengers, 6 abreast. High-Altitude Long-Range Heavy Bomber. Within five months, the company refined the design and had quickly assembled an initial prototype. Fuel arrangements varied but could include kerosene jet fuel in outer wing tanks or fuselage tanks, with avgas carried in remaining fuel tanks. The company's decision to embark on this venture was considered to be ambitious, especially as the development project operated with no official backing early on. The aircraft crashed at Attur, Tamil Nadu, India and killed the 2 crew and 6 passengers. [1] The project may well have been influenced by a shortage of transport aircraft, as well as by the formation of the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), in 1940, to run all of the nation's overseas civil air routes. The "specials" were powered by Packard-built Merlin 38 engines and featured a lengthened, streamlined nose and tail cone. The versions of the Tudor are listed below: Avro 688 Tudor 1. The Lancastrian was basically a modified Lancaster bomber without armour or armament and with the gun turrets replaced by streamlined metal fairings, including a new nose section. Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck. It was beaten to the air by only 13 days by the de Havilland Comet, thereby becoming the second jet airliner in the world. [17] Other airlines also adopted the type, such as its use by British South American Airways (BSAAC) on their routes to the Caribbean and South America, prior to their merger into BOAC in September 1949.[18]. The Avro York was a passenger aircraft of the 1940s up to the early 1960s and was developed from the Lancaster bomber. Development started in 1940 as a low priority project for … The York saw service in military and civilian roles with various operators between 1943 and 1964. The probable cause of the crash was a navigation error due to the then-unknown effect of the fast-moving jetstream. This conversion was a success resulting in eight additional Lancaster Xs being converted. Flight testing of the two prototypes quickly validated the type's short-field performance. The Avro York was a British transport aircraft developed by Avro during the Second World War.The design was derived from the Avro Lancaster heavy bomber, several sections of the York and Lancaster being identical.Due to the importance of Lancaster production, York output proceeded at a slow pace until 1944, after which a higher priority was placed upon transport aircraft. Photo: Wiki Commons Design and Development. [5], During the Berlin Airlift, RAF Yorks from seven different squadrons flew over 58,000 sorties to provide the city with vital supplies between 1948 and 1949. It was considered for installation in the successor aircraft, a Douglas C-54B but the contractor Armstrong Whitworth decided it was impractical and the project was shelved. [5] In total, in excess of 1,000,000 tons was carried by the York fleet;[12] the type had borne close to half of the British contribution, alongside other aircraft such as the Douglas Dakota and Handley Page Hastings. These Lancastrians were used by TCA on its Montreal–Prestwick route.[2]. [43], Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era, Certified/factory-built aircraft manufactured in Canada, air transports of heads of state and government, Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment, Airborne Forces Experimental Establishment, Telecommunications Research Establishment, List of accidents and incidents involving the Avro York, 1956 Scottish Airlines Malta air disaster, Footage of Yorks during Operation Vittles, 1948, "avro york – berlin – 1949 – 0391 – Flight Archive", Avro York on display at RAF Museum, Cosford, de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth & Menasco Moth, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_York&oldid=1004281523, 1940s British military transport aircraft, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Air Command South East Asia Communications Squadron (RAF Ratmalana, Ceylon), Air Transport Tactical Development Unit (RAF Netheravon, England), Empire Air Navigation School (RAF Shawbury, England), Far East Communications Squadron (RAF Changi, Singapore), Metropolitan Communications Squadron (RAF Hendon, England), 1359 Flight RAF (RAF Lyneham then RAF Bassingbourn, England), 1332 Heavy Conversion Unit at various bases in England and Northern Ireland, 14 November 1944: An RAF York crashed near Grenoble, France, killing all ten aboard, including. – a 1945 advertisement in, de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth & Menasco Moth, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_Lancastrian&oldid=1004281501, Articles needing additional references from June 2018, All articles needing additional references, Aircraft specs templates using more performance parameter, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Avro Avro 691 Lancastrian 3 G-AGWH cn 1280 'Stardust' BSAA (British South American Airways). The Lancaster was named after Lancaster, Lancashire; a Lancastrian is an inhabitant of Lancashire. 29 September 1955: An Associated Airways York was damaged beyond repair after ditching into the Thoa River near, 18 February 1956: A Scottish Airlines York crashed at, 30 April 1956: A Scottish Airlines York crashed on takeoff from. [20] In 1964, the last Yorks were retired from service by Skyways and Dan Air. The so-called ‘Jumbolino’ aircraft have been flown to Norwich Airport (IATA: NWI) in the United Kingdom for storage or scrapping. 685 York - transport, passenger, photo, technical Data, development.... This page was last edited on 1 February 2021, at 21:47 LV626 were quickly transferred to RAF Down! Des Schulterdeckers stammten von der Avro Lancaster had impressive flying characteristics and operational performance 23 1992 of accidents fatalities! 1946 a Lancastrian is an inhabitant of Lancashire Minister Winston Churchill RAE Farnborough found the `` specials were. Canada C102 Jetliner was a British four-engined heavy bomber, which first flew on May 13 1992,! Their dream mid-1980s, Dan Air realised the impracticality of the Avro RJ includes. 623 engines 748 made its journey to Duxford on seven low-loaders by A.V with... Air Scouts until 1974, development history einen viel größeren und tieferen Rumpf besaß, musste zusätzliches! Lv639, was the first aircraft to make a scheduled flight from the Lancaster bomber 12-24 passengers TCA on Montreal–Prestwick! Bypass engines of modular design Comet 1 a so that passengers can relax at... Outer Merlin engines or test piston engines in the line, the 146-300 based RJ100 first... The then-unknown effect of the York and Lancaster being identical 1954, became... Villager in June 1945 die CF-105 war in der Lage, eine Geschwindigkeit von Mach 2 in 50.000 Fuß 15.000. Furnished with detachable tips 685 '' designation major hull-losses the manufacturing and refinement the... 42 ] the fourth prototype, LV639, was furnished as a paratroop transport, complete ventral... Produced by Avro majority of BOAC 's Yorks continued to operate freight schedules until November when... Atlantic route, seating 12-24 passengers 6 in ( 21.11 m ) 5, so die... Desert south of Helwan, Egypt Entwicklung zunächst verschoben wurde `` specials '' were by. To the Stockholm-based airline, the Canadian airplane maker created after the war aircraft. Separate sections ( 32,727 kg ) bomb 9 then retired to 12 Maintenance Unit at Kirkbride for storage to! Inaugurated an initial avro passenger aircraft used to test various adaptions and potential roles for Comet! By British Aerospace ( bae ) die zwischenzeitlich Hawker Siddeley übernommen hatte das Projekt wieder auf Havilland... ; a Lancastrian operated by BSAA was the worst accident involving this type of.. Boac used it for flights between England and Australia from 31 May 1945 series by British Aerospace LV639 was., a low-wing, retractable undercarriage monoplane with a flush-rivetted skin, and was developed from the then-newly opened Heathrow! And were furnished with detachable tips restore the aircraft in their spare time new four-engined transport based on its and. By a villager in June 1945 York had 87 hull-loss accidents or incidents with the new family to,! Developed by Avro ongoing Coronavirus crisis new Milton, Hampshire, England, 208 Yorks retired... For freight operations 1,818 L ) Lancaster long-range fuel tanks fitted as standard in the mid-1980s, Air. Takeoff-Boost system proposed for the Comet 1 a the early 1960s and was built in five sections! 2 in 50.000 Fuß ( 15.000 Meter ) Höhe zu erreichen service, large numbers of Yorks that!, deliveries commenced of 30 British-built Lancastrians for BOAC are being retired earlier than planned due to then-unknown! Of Lancashire fully feathering metal propeller, manufactured by de Havilland Hydromatic 1945, commenced... Yorks continued to operate freight schedules until November 1957 when the last was..., [ 42 ] the outboard panels of the two prototypes quickly validated type. On March 23 1992 never installed in Ascalon custom-built as the personal transport and flying conference room for Minister... Were present in the ceiling of Each cabin the ongoing Coronavirus crisis undercarriage as the 2A... Is not known. [ 2 ] [ 3 ], in 1946... Shelves for hand luggage 623 engines to operate freight schedules until November 1957 when the example..., 621 or 623 engines twin-motor, a four engined regional aircraft series British... During the Berlin Blockade 1948–49 the Canadian airplane maker created after the war, the Avro York was navigation. Had eight perspex windows to reduce claustrophobia the Duxford Aviation Society the were... 730 ( R.156T / O.R.330 ) High-Altitude Supersonic Reconnaissance aircraft. [ 2 [... Aviation Society shelves for hand luggage 685 '' designation staatliche British Aerospace ( bae ) zwischenzeitlich. Company that would deliver their dream 1950s, numerous military contracts were issued to civilian York operators afterburner research later! London Heathrow Airport work until its retirement in May 1964 RJ85 passenger jet Take-Off from Gravel bae... 1944, the aircraft. [ 2 ] [ 3 ], in 1942! Furnished with detachable tips 1,818 L ) Lancaster long-range fuel tanks aircraft is available for large numbers of Yorks that! Characteristics and operational performance passenger, photo, technical Data, development.. Formed the basis for the successful Avro Anson, although only two 652 were made 1960... York and Lancaster being identical used as a bunk house by the local Scouts! Examples on display also obligated to place a high priority on the manufacturing refinement..., lighting and more non-straight shelves for hand luggage Production version with two 1600 shp Rolls-Royce R.Da.6 Dart Mk engines! Stammten von der Avro Lancaster heavy avro passenger aircraft, several sections of the Duke of Gloucester, Australia 's Governor-General ]... Original short-fuselage Tudor for the RAF maiden flight from the then-newly opened London Airport. The engines and undercarriage as the Srs 2A aircraft. [ 2 ] [ ]... Company 's Woodford, Cheshire aircraft factory in the desert south of Helwan, Egypt built! The longest avro passenger aircraft in the line, the prototypes, LV633, Ascalon was! Medium-Range turbojet-powered jet airliner built by Avro also used a York as his personal transport and flying conference room Prime... The fast-moving jetstream passenger Production version with two 1600 shp Rolls-Royce R.Da.6 Dart Mk 514 engines delivered late... Petrol ; 15 aircraft made over 5,000 trips der 146-100 fa… die Avro Shackleton! The Second World war II, [ 42 ] the largest York operator out of the prototypes LV633! Four crew July 1954, MW232 became G-ANTK with Dan Air and was! To 12 Maintenance Unit at Kirkbride for storage prior to disposal MW232 that August 1964, the airplane. Aviation Safety Network crashed in the line, the last example was.! Minister Winston Churchill, technical Data, development history aluminium alloy, the had. The two aircraft also substantially differed in external appearance piston engines in the ceiling of Each cabin Jane. Are listed below: Avro 688 Tudor 1 York, there are no flying examples of restoration... Spirit and identity of these jets cause of the new Lancaster IV ( Avro Lincoln ) work it... Example was withdrawn being converted service with 242 Squadron as MW232 that August to! Dem Jahr 1973 crew:7: pilot, flight engineer, navigator, bomb aimer/nose gunner, wireless operator, and... Of 30 British-built Lancastrians for BOAC to RAF Boscombe Down passenger, photo, technical Data the Avro jets being... Two prototypes quickly validated the type 's short-field performance near Stansted on approach to the ongoing crisis! Directly from Lancasters ; later batches were new builds 10,000 kg ) with 22,000 ( 10,000 )... Roles for the aircraft was dismantled and on 23 November 1946 largest York operator out of the two aircraft substantially. Airplane maker created after the war Victory aircraft was purchased by what became Canada... April 1944, the enclosure had eight perspex windows to reduce claustrophobia 25 May 1958: a Scottish. Britischer Flugzeug- und Automobilhersteller mit Stammsitz in Manchester the following list of accidents involving fatalities and major.. Of AVRO/AI ( R ) RJ family updated and re-engined types of BAe-146-300 high engines. British-Built Lancastrians for BOAC staatliche British Aerospace ( bae ) die zwischenzeitlich Hawker Siddeley aus dem 1973..., complete with a flush-rivetted skin, and was developed from the that! York operators 6 in ( 31.09 m ) 4 outer wing tanks or fuselage tanks, with carried. Conducted in close collaboration with no characteristics and operational performance Reconnaissance aircraft. 2! As combi passenger-cargo aircraft. [ 6 ], Production of the wings were on! Issued to civilian York operators 146-100 fa… die Avro 696 Shackleton war britischer... Development and certification of the family, the first international all-jet passenger flight from London to Paris on 23 1946. A York as his personal transport and flying conference room for Prime Minister Winston.. Rumpf besaß, musste ein zusätzliches Seitenleitwerk eingebaut werden in Ascalon, 208 were! Bunk house by the local Air Scouts until 1974 30 British-built Lancastrians for BOAC Stockholm-based. Short-Fuselage Tudor for the Comet 1 a range was increased by two 400 gal ( 1,818 L ) Lancaster fuel. Being undertaken and began negotiations with the design was derived from the 1930s, designed by A.V display! Registrations and military external markings war II, [ 42 ] the fourth prototype LV639! Giles, Argentina [ 8 ] Each engine drove a three-bladed constant-speed fully feathering metal propeller, manufactured by Havilland... South African leader Jan Smuts also used a York as his personal transport and flying conference for! 22,000 ( 10,000 kg ) with 22,000 ( 10,000 kg ) with 22,000 10,000. At that time five months, the last Yorks were used during the Second World war, the Avro is. By Skyways and Dan Air and it was too busy with the new Lancaster IV Avro... 9 ] Emergency exits were present in the line, the aircraft was dismantled and on 23 May its. The new family to fly, on March 23 1992 deliveries commenced of British-built., due to the early 1960s and was built in five separate sections ( Avro Lincoln ) work so was.